Scientists flocking to Chile to study the "rupture zone" at the heart of one of the biggest earthquakes – and subsequent tsunami - have been asking how so many people managed to survive.
The earthquake, which killed almost 800 people in February, was the fifth biggest since records began, at 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale.
The earthquake triggered a tsunami which devastated several coastal towns in south-central Chile and damaged the port at Talcahuano.
The South American country also suffered from aftershocks that were so severe - up to 6.9 in magnitude – it has allowed scientists to measure more precisely how the ground is shaking, leading to a greater understanding of earthquakes.
The Island of Robinson Crusoe, on the archipelago of Juan Fernandez, is one of the key areas that scientists are examining.
Martina Maturana, 12, raised the alarm in the island's village square by activating an alarm installed in case of emergencies.
She said: "All of a sudden I saw boats crashing into each other, and waves began to take off branches. That's when I noticed that the sea had come in.
"It was a big wave, it was like a black mass with sticks, and refrigerators, and roof tops, and television aeriels."
Martina's actions meant many people were able to flee to the highest point of the island for safety.
Professor Costas Synolakis, who is examining the island, said: "This is one of the worst places hit by this tsunami in Chile.
"The scene reminded me very much of what we saw very recently in Samoa, in a couple of villages like we saw in Palau, which were completely wiped out, or what we saw in other places in Sri Lanka in 2004.
"The depth of the flow – the tsunami flood – were even bigger than what we saw in Sri Lanka. So there was no way anybody living in this area could have survived.
"The Chilean tsunami is a way sets a new bar in terms of trying to understand tsunami inundation."